Foot & Ankle Center



Adult foot & ankle clinic: (Trauma,
Arthritis, nerve problems, MIS surgeries,
forefoot issues, deformities)

Sports foot & ankle clinic

Diabetic foot & ankle clinic

Paediatric foot & ankle clinic


Orthotics & footwear alterations

Arthroplasty (joint replacement)

Arthroscopy & endoscopy

Weight bearing radiology

Foot & ankle physiotherapy



Achilles Tendinitis

Achilles tendinitis is an overuse injury of the Achilles tendon, the band of tissue that connects calf muscles at the back of the lower leg to your heel bone. Achilles tendinitis most commonly occurs in runners who have suddenly increased the intensity or duration of their runs. It’s also common in middle-aged people who play sports only on the weekends. The pain associated with Achilles tendinitis typically begins as a mild ache in the back of the leg or above the heel after running or other sports activity.

Ankle Fracture

Ankle joint is a large joint that is composed of 3 bones. It is a region where foot and leg meet. When one or more bones in the ankle are broken, it is referred to as an ankle fracture. A fractured ankle can range from a simple break in one bone to several fractures, which forces your ankle out of place. It can be caused by twisting or rolling your ankle, falling, or an accident. You will experience immediate pain, swelling, and inability to bear weight. In some cases pain can extend from the foot to the knee. Ankle fracture usually requires surgery.

Ankle Pain

Ankle pain is often due to an ankle sprain but can also be caused by ankle instability, arthritis, gout, tendonitis, fracture, nerve compression (tarsal tunnel syndrome), infection and poor structural alignment of the leg or foot. Ankle pain can be associated with swelling, stiffness, redness and warmth in the involved area.

Achilles Tendon Rupture

The Achilles tendon is the most powerful tendon in the human body. The Achilles tendon is a strong fibrous cord that connects the muscles in the back of your calf to your heel bone. An Achilles tendon rupture is a complete or partial tear that occurs when the tendon is stretched beyond its capacity. Forceful jumping or pivoting, or sudden accelerations of running, can overstretch the tendon and cause a tear or rupture. If your Achilles tendon ruptures, you might hear a pop, followed by an immediate sharp pain in the back of your ankle and lower leg that is likely to affect your ability to walk properly. Surgery is often performed to repair the rupture.

Ankle Sprain

Ankle Sprains are a very common injury that can happen to anyone.  Your ankles support your entire body weight and are vulnerable to instability.  Walking on an uneven surface or wearing the wrong shoes can cause a sudden loss of balance that makes the ankle twist. It’s common that an ankle sprain is referred to as a twisted ankle, rolled ankle, and even a floppy ankle. If the ankle turns far enough, the ligaments that hold the bones together can overstretch or tear, resulting in a sprain.  A major sprain or several minor sprains can lead to permanent ankle instability.

Feet pain

Injury, overuse or conditions causing inflammation involving any of the bones, ligaments or tendons in the foot can cause foot pain. Arthritis is a common cause of foot pain. Injury to the nerves of the feet may result in intense burning pain, numbness or tingling (peripheral neuropathy). Foot pain can have causes that aren’t due to underlying disease. Examples include poorly fitting shoes, prolonged period on feet, overuse such as long walks or running a marathon, sprains, strains or trauma.


Arthritis is an inflammatory disease of the joints. Your feet contain almost a quarter of all the bones in your body. That is a lot of bones where arthritis can strike. Arthritis can not only limit your activity but is also painful. Arthritis is identified by the swelling, stiffening, or limited range of motion at your joints. When it occurs in your feet or ankles, it can make walking or performing basic daily tasks difficult.
The most common types of arthritis in the feet are osteoarthritis, rheumatoid arthritis, and gout.
Osteoarthritis is a degenerative condition that occurs with age, in which the cartilage between the foot and ankle joints wears away, causing the bones to rub together.
Rheumatoid arthritis is an inflammatory type of arthritis. It’s caused by an autoimmune reaction in which the body’s immune system attacks the lining of the joints, resulting in swelling and pain.
Gout is another type of arthritis that usually affects the joint at the base of the big toe. Symptoms tend to occur suddenly, often at night. Gout can cause intense big toe joint pain, redness, and swelling.

Athlete’s Foot

Athlete’s foot is a fungal infection that usually begins between the toes. Athletes are not the only people who can get athlete’s foot.  A fungus that thrives in warm environments, such as poolside surfaces and locker rooms, causes the skin infection to develop between the toes or on the soles of the feet. Athlete’s foot commonly occurs in people whose feet have become very sweaty within tight-fitting shoes. Symptoms include a scaly rash that usually causes itching, stinging, and burning.


A bunion is often described as a bump on the side of the big toe. But a bunion is more than that. Bunions are a deformity in the foot where the joints in the big toe are misaligned. The big toe points toward the second toe, rather than pointing straight ahead. The joints can become sore and swollen. They usually develop when you wear shoes that are too tight or small in the toe area. Bunions in the feet are more common in women who wear high heels. They are often painful and can inhibit your ability to perform everyday tasks. Allowed to progress, the condition will develop to the point of a partial dislocation.


A bunionette is a bump that occurs near the base of the little toe on the foot. Bunionettes are also known as Tailor’s bunions because years ago, tailors sat cross-legged all day, putting pressure on the side of their foot.  Today, pressure from poor fitting shoes is a common cause of bunionettes, as well as inherited bone structure problems.

Calcaneal Fractures

Calcaneal fractures occur on the calcaneus or heel bone, a large bone that forms the foundation of the rear part of the foot. Most calcaneal fractures are the result of a traumatic event—most commonly, falling from a height, such as a ladder, or being in an automobile accident where the heel is crushed under the weight of the body. When this occurs, the heel can widen, shorten, and become deformed. Treatment often involves surgery to reconstruct the normal anatomy of the heel and restore mobility so that patients can return to normal activity.

Charcot Foot

Charcot foot is a rare but serious complication that can affect persons with peripheral neuropathy, especially those with diabetes mellitus. Charcot affects the bones, joints, and soft tissues of the foot or ankle. The bones become weak and can break and the joints in the foot or ankle can dislocate. If not caught in its earliest stage, the joints in the foot collapse and the foot eventually becomes deformed. Charcot foot is a serious condition that can lead to severe deformity, disability and even amputation.

Diabetic Foot

Foot problems are a common complication of Diabetes. Diabetes-related foot problems are most frequently caused by nerve damage and poor blood circulation. Infections, ulcers or sores, deformities, and trauma can all be the result. Foot problems are the leading reason for diabetes-related hospitalization. Further, diabetes is the leading cause of lower leg and foot amputation. Diabetic foot care is essential as diabetes can be dangerous to your feet—even a small cut can produce serious consequences.

Diabetic Neuropathy

Diabetic neuropathy is a condition where a permanent nerve damage results. The condition most often affects the legs and feet. For some people, symptoms are mild. For others, symptoms can be painful, debilitating and even fatal. Symptoms include pain and numbness in the legs. In more severe cases, symptoms include issues with digestion, the bladder and controlling heart rate. Treatment includes managing blood sugar and using medication to control symptoms.

Flat feet

A condition in which the entire sole of the foot touches the floor when standing. Flatfeet can occur during childhood if the arches of the feet don’t develop, after an injury, or from the wear and tear of aging. Flatfoot is often a complex disorder, with diverse symptoms and varying degrees of deformity and disability. There are several types of flatfoot, all of which have one characteristic in common: partial or total collapse (loss) of the arch. You may first notice pain, redness, and swelling along the inside of your ankle and foot.  As the arch in your foot flattens, you may experience pain in your outer and midfoot, weakness, and the inability to stand on your toes. Symptoms are usually progressive, meaning they get worse over time.


A fracture is a partial or complete break in a bone. Foot fractures are very common. They may be caused by falls, twisting, or direct impact of a foot against a hard object. Foot fractures cause considerable pain, which is almost always made worse by attempting to walk or put weight on the foot. Usually need to take x-rays to diagnose foot fractures.


Orthotics are inserts that are put inside the shoes. Custom orthotics are medical devices prescribed by a foot and ankle surgeon. They can be helpful in correcting certain foot conditions that may include abnormal foot structure and flat feet. Additionally, they can be beneficial in providing the necessary stability. Orthotics provide relief and comfort for minor foot, heel, and ankle pain.

Peripheral vascular disease (PVD)

Peripheral arterial disease (PAD) in the legs or lower extremities is the narrowing or blockage of the vessels that carry blood from the heart to the legs. It is primarily caused by the buildup of fatty plaque in the arteries, which is called atherosclerosis. Chronic smokers may as well develop this problem. Common symptoms comprise of wounds that won’t heal over pressure points, such as heels or ankles, Numbness, weakness, or heaviness in muscles and Burning or aching pain at rest, commonly in the toes and at night while lying flat.

Stress Fracture

Stress fractures are tiny hairline breaks in the bone. High impact, overuse, or improper form during sports or movements cause stress fractures.  Stress fractures occur from repeated stress to the healthy bones.  Because of the repetitive stress, the bones are not able to repair themselves.  In some cases, the bones may be already weakened by disease, such as osteoporosis, and be vulnerable to fracturing. Pain, swelling, redness and bruising can be signs of a stress fracture.

Haglund’s Deformity

Haglund’s deformity is a bony enlargement on the back of the heel. The soft tissue near the back of the heel can become irritated when the large, bony lump rubs against rigid shoes. It occurs when there’s frequent pressure on the backs of your heels. It may be caused by wearing shoes that are too tight or stiff in the heel. This can lead to pain and inflammation.

Hallux Limitus/Rigidus

Hallux rigidus or limitus means “stiff big toe” — the main symptom of the disorder. Hallux rigidus is a type of degenerative arthritis, a common type of arthritis. It’s sometimes called “big toe arthritis. Hallux Rigidus Treatment Options include Nonsurgical management as the first line treatment for this condition in form of pain relievers and anti-inflammatory medicines, ice or heat packs, or even injections into the joint to reduce pain and stiffness. Failed nonoperative treatment invites surgery.


The most common toe deformities seen are hammer toes. Hammertoe is a deformity that causes a toe to bend at one of its joint. In a hammer toe, the toe is bent at the middle knuckle of the toe, while in a claw toe the toe is bent at both the middle knuckle and tip of the toe. Each of the deformities can create corns on the toes, and in more severe cases, redness, swelling, and even an open sore can develop. Whether hammertoe is caused by arthritis or ill-fitting shoes, it’s important to seek treatment once the condition becomes painful or interferes with your quality of life.

Heel Pain

Your heels bear tons of pressure each day when you stand and walk. Heel helps to bear and distribute your body weight across your foot when you stand or walk.  It’s no wonder that heel pain is a common complaint. Heel pain may develop gradually or occur suddenly.  It may be accompanied by redness, thickened skin, or swelling. Heel pain occurs for a variety of reasons, from wearing the wrong type of shoes to abnormal growths or tendon problems. Because there are several potential causes, it is important to have heel pain properly diagnosed. A foot and ankle surgeon is able to distinguish between all the possibilities and to determine the underlying source of your heel pain.

Heel Spurs

Heel spur is a bony growth that develops around the heel bone, often caused by ill-fitting shoes, and sometimes causing pain. Symptoms include sharp pain like a knife in the heel when standing up in the morning or a dull ache in the heel throughout the rest of the day. Sometimes inflammation and swelling are noticed at the front of the heel. Treatment comprises of activity modification, medications and orthotics.

High-Arched Foot

Your foot has a very high arch. The high-arched foot places an excessive amount of weight on the ball and heel of the foot when walking or standing. It is often caused by a neurologic disorder or other medical condition. It can lead to a variety of signs and symptoms, such as pain and instability especially when walking or standing for long periods of time.


Intoeing means that when a child walks or runs, the feet turn inward instead of pointing straight ahead. It is commonly referred to as being “pigeon-toed.” Intoeing is often first noticed by parents when a baby begins walking, but children at various ages may display intoeing for different reasons. A child whose intoeing is associated with pain, swelling, or a limp should be evaluated by an orthopaedic surgeon.

Lisfranc Fracture

A Lisfranc fracture occurs in the bones of the midfoot. The fracture results from dropping something heavy on the foot or twisting the foot during sports or an accident. A Lisfranc injury is often mistaken for a simple sprain. However, injury to the Lisfranc joint is not a simple sprain. It is a severe injury that may take many months to heal and may require surgery to treat.


Metatarsalgia is a condition in which the ball of your foot becomes painful and inflamed. You might develop it if you participate in activities that involve running and jumping. There are other causes as well, including foot deformities and shoes that are too tight or too loose. The common symptoms of metatarsalgia will typically include a sharp, aching or burning pain in the forefoot or ball of the foot. This pain will worsens with increased activity, such as walking on hard surfaces barefoot.


A neuroma is a thickening or enlargement of nerve tissue that can lead to tingling, burning, numbness, pain and other discomfort. The most common neuroma in the foot is called a Morton’s neuroma and develops between the third and fourth toes. However, neuroma’s can develop in other places on the foot as well. Irritation to the nerve can result from improper shoes (too narrow, high heels), injury, or a mechanical abnormality of the foot. Compression and irritation to the nerve cause the thickening, or enlargement of the nerve, and can lead to permanent nerve damage if left untreated.

Sprains And Strains

Sprains and strains are common injuries that can happen to anyone, but occur most frequently in people who participate in sports, perform repetitive activities, or are at-risk for falls. A sprain describes an injury to a ligament that connects two bones. A strain describes an injury to a muscle or tendon. A sprain causes pain, bruising, and swelling.  You may hear or feel a pop when the injury occurs. A strain causes muscle pain, weakness, cramping, spasm, or swelling.


Neuropathy, also referred to as neuralgia or neuritis, is a type of pain that involves the nerves.  Neuropathy results from nerve degeneration, pressure, inflammation, or infection. Symptoms include sharp, shooting, burning pain and hypersensitivity. Other symptoms of nerve malfunction include tingling, numbness, intense itching, and weakness. There are many causes of nerve damage, and a primary cause is diabetes (diabetic neuropathy).


Outtoeing means that when a child walks or runs, the feet turn outward instead of pointing straight ahead. It is commonly referred to as being “duck-feet.” Outtoeing is often first noticed by parents when a baby begins walking, but children at various ages may display outtoeing for different reasons. A child whose outtoeing is associated with pain, swelling, or a limp should be evaluated by an orthopaedic surgeon.

Toe Walking

Toe walking, a condition in which a person walks on the toes or ball of the foot, is most often seen in young children learning to walk. A child who does not outgrow toe walking in early childhood should be evaluated by a foot and ankle surgeon. Toe walking may be habitual or it can be caused by a shortened Achilles tendon often associated with a neurological or muscular disorder.

Plantar Fasciitis

Plantar fasciitis is a painful heel condition. It is one of the most common causes of heel pain. It involves inflammation of a thick band of tissue that runs across the bottom of your foot and connects your heel bone to your toes. Plantar fasciitis can cause significant heel pain. The pain is usually worse in the morning upon awakening, following rest, or after being on your feet for long periods of time. The most common cause of plantar fasciitis relates to faulty structure of the foot.

Sever’s Disease

Sever’s Disease is a type of bone injury that occurs when the growth plate located in the back of the heel becomes inflamed. This type of foot pain can be common in children, especially in ages 8-14, because the bone is still forming and is at higher risk of becoming strained or inflamed during strenuous exercise or activity.

Shin Splints

Shin splints is a term to describe pain and swelling in the front of the lower legs. The pain is most frequently caused by muscle overuse, improper form when exercising, or wearing the wrong type of athletic shoes. Shin splints cause a dull aching pain on the front or inside lower part of the leg.  The pain may increase when you move your legs, climb stairs, or walk.


A wart is a small growth on the skin that develops when the skin is infected by a virus. Warts can develop anywhere on the foot, but they typically appear on the bottom of the foot. They are contagious and can be spread from person to person. They commonly develop on the heels or balls of the foot and are painful when you stand or walk. Warts most commonly occur in children, adolescents and the elderly.


A wound is defined as damaged skin and tissue layers, typically from an injury resulting in a cut or abrasion. If a chronic wound begins growing deeper and deeper into the foot, it may become an ulcer.
Ulcers, are open sores in the skin, occur when the outer layers of the skin are injured and the deeper tissues become exposed. They can be caused by excess pressure due to ill-fitting shoes, long periods in bed or after an injury that breaks the skin. Ulcers are commonly seen in patients living with diabetes, neuropathy or vascular disease. Open wounds can put patients at increased risk of developing infection in the skin and bone. It not treated then it can cause severe infection and can lead to amputation.

Tarsal Tunnel Syndrome

Tarsal tunnel syndrome is a condition caused by repeated pressure that results in damage to the specific nerve of the foot. Tarsal tunnel syndrome is similar to carpal tunnel syndrome, which occurs in the wrist. Symptoms may include burning pain at the sole of the foot that’s worse when standing or during activity. Other symptoms include numbness or tingling at the base of the foot.

Adult foot & ankle clinic


Sports foot & ankle clinic


Diabetic foot & ankle clinic


Paediatrics foot & ankle clinic


Arthroscopy & arthroplasty (joint replacement)


Weight bearingradiology


Foot & ankle physiotherapy


Orthotics & footwear alterations